The popularity of hydraulic press machines has been growing very fast in the recent past. In the manufacturing industry, we have seen most of the process that requires compression forces. A good example is metal forging, which is now adopting hydraulic systems. That’s because of the many benefits this technology has compared to the use of mechanical force. For example, a small hydraulic press in terms of size and occupying a small space can produce tons of force.
But what is a hydraulic press? These are devices that utilize hydraulic transmission technology to produce pressure. These machines or systems have a wide range of applications in sectors that require the use of compression force. One example of areas where hydraulic press machines are used is the forging of various metals such as steel. They also mold metals and pressing rubber products and plastic products.
The hydraulic press is one of the machines that use hydraulic compression. But today. Most industries are adopting this form of transmission in the running of various machinery. In fact, hydraulic machines, including hydraulic press, have become essential equipment in various industries. They include aerospace, heavy machinery manufacturing, plastic, and non-ferrous metal processing industries.
However, some manufacturing processes, such as forging, are where the use of hydraulic machines big. All kinds of forging require a lot of compression force to deform metals to the required shape and size. Do note that the metal being forged goes under this pressure till it produces plastic deformation. That’s when it takes the shape of molds or dies. For plastic processing, the compression force can also produce plasticity instead of heating. Hydraulic machines are also good for crushing plastic and other waste materials into small parts.
The working mechanism of the hydraulic transmission system and press machines is pretty simple. The hydraulic transmission system of the hydraulic press machines is based on pressure transformation. They work on high pressure, large flow, and high power principles. With this setup, you need to maximize the prime power and prevent shock and vibration during pressure release. That’s how you get maximum compression force for press forming and other uses.
According to pressing process requirements, the press machine master cylinder can complete basic downward working speed of rapid down-deceleration, pressure holding delay, and pressure relief return, stop, speed, and pressure holding time can be adjusted. Therefore, you can do plenty of press forming with these machines with all these functions.
The master cylinder of the hydraulic press can also perform the action of retreating and ejection. A good example is the when stretching sheet metals, which is also a sector that uses hydraulic machines a lot. The auxiliary action of ascending, stopping, and pressure returning requires the hydraulic master cylinder’s pressure. So this actuator is the source of the force the entire system uses.
The hydraulic press machine takes the maximum pressure or tonnage that’s produced by the master cylinder. However, the tonnage divides across various cylinders to ensure the machine is working efficiently. The ejector usually takes a good amount of tonnage of what the master cylinder has produced. It takes 20-50% of the main actuator tonnage. The variation in percentage is because the injection force differs based on the load. This means you need to calculate the amount of force you need to set for efficient processing. To small force for a large load will make the machine lose its efficiency.
The eject cylinder of the extruder usually uses about 10% of the master cylinder tonnage. But various hydraulic press machine may have varying tonnage use. The tonnage of the blanking cylinder for the double-acting hydraulic drawing press takes about 60% of the drawing cylinder tonnage. These are just some of the factors that determine hydraulic systems’ performance in press machines.
For a proper working hydraulic system, the speed of the master cylinder is an important fact. From the designs of these machines, this speed is mainly determined by pressure processing technology. For the hydraulic system directly supplied by the pump, the working stroke should not go beyond 50mm/s. Similarly, the fast forward speed must not exceed 300mm/s. In addition to that, the fast rewind and the fast forward speed should be equal. This is very important.